The 5-T’s


Turn Time Twist Throttle Talk is dogmatically taught at flight schools as an ideal work sequence for instrument flights.

Turn – turn to the desired heading. You may need to turn to an intercept heading to get on the desired radial or bearing.
Time – start your timer, if needed.
Twist – twist the OBS to the proper setting, either required radial or the reciprocal to eliminate reverse sensing.
Throttle – reduce your airspeed
Talk – if asked to report, do so.

Although the above sequence appears to be effective for improving navigation skills and disciplining oneself, it seems at odds with the Aviate (Throttle + Turn), Navigate (Time + Twist), and Communicate (Talk) adage… So Throttle, Turn, Time, Twist and Talk would seem like a more appropriate sequence.

Situational Awareness in Aviation

Situational awareness is the perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future…

Put simply;
– What’s happened (past)
– What’s happening (present)
– What might happen (future)

Skilled pilots are better able to acquire and maintain their situational awareness. The skill is best  learned through a composite of training, feedback and self reflection. The following is a compilation of tips to help pilots focus on developing situational awareness.

Starting with you:

  • Mentally tough people are better focused and able to forge ahead, pilots should focus on the things that work.
  • Pilots that have ‘mental baggage’ such as financial stress, personal difficulties can be taken on-board… and may detract from mental resources dedicated for the task of flying… particular problematic when an emergency arises or the patient becomes task saturated.
  • Exercise and good nutrition help pilots to think clearly and make good decisions… aim for 30-60 mins of dedicated exercise each day.
    – Fatigue
    – Avoid drugs and alcohol
    – Fed and Hydrated
    – Avoid stress
  • There is a connection between personal confidence and performance (i.e. competence and command) as a pilot

Pre-Flight Planning and Preparation:

  •  Give oneself time to plan ahead and ask what-if, and have a plan for every what-if… even short flights can be planned up to a week in advance in accordance with route, NOTAMS, weather, terrain etc.
  • Prepare maps, charts, relevant runways
  • Clean the windscreen – avoid focal traps!

In-Flight Routine:

  •  Stay ahead of the aircraft and plan for tasks to be performed such as setting new frequencies before transition points. Rushing and doing things at the last can lead to delay and increased errors.
  • Avoid becoming fixated on a single task or distractions
  • Scan outside and be vigilant
    • Beware of ’empty field myopia’ phenomenon – where the eyes adopt a natural rest position when there’s ‘nothing perceptibly seen’… this can be avoided by  regular forced checks with changes focus in the field from near to far!
    • Most pilots tend to scan only out the front of their aircraft whereas dangers can come from all angles..
  • Beyond ‘see and avoid’ … build a model of the situation.
    • Always ask the question “do I have the full picture”
    • Listen out for other aircraft in the area
    • Note real-time weather factors (wind direction and strength, cloud, storms), time and place, fuel levels.


  • Review data from GPS or other video/audio recording devices.
  • Write notes on every flight compiling also pre-flight notes.
  • Be as thorough as possible in recalling and reconstructing how a situation occurred, this can also help generate an understanding of the gaps in your own knowledge!

Lesson 7. Flight Circuits II

Airport: Hervey Bay Aerodrome
Instructor: BS , Briefing time (hr): 0
Time to take off: 8:15 Runway: 29
Time to land: 9:15 Runway: 29          Total Engine time: 1.0 Approx. Fuel ____
Wx: Wx at aerodrome (Approx time of AWIS call 8:00): Cloud clear <1200, Wind Direction variable 340 – 350 N, Wind Strength 13 kts , Temp 22.4oC, Dewpoint -, Rainfall last 10 mins nil, Wind types -, Visibility >10km,  Humidity 60%, QNH 1012, Changes in Wx Conditions, BOM daily wx obs: Temps Min (°C) 13.2, Max (°C) __, Rain (mm) 0, Evap __, Sun __, [[Max daily wind gust: Dir __, Spd (km/h) __, Time (local) __]] [[9:00am record: Temp (°C) 24.1, RH (%) 57, Cloud -, Dir N, Spd (km/h) 17, MSLP (hPA) 1022.4]], [[3:00pm record: Temp (°C) __, RH (%) __, Cloud __ , Dir __, Spd (km/h) __, MSLP (hPa) __]]

TAF YHBA 072111Z 0800/0812


FM080100 36012KT CAVOK


T 25 26 25 22 Q 1021 1019 1017 1018

METAR YHBA 080400Z AUTO 36012KT 9999 // NCD 25/17 Q1018

RMK RF00.0/000.0


Goals: Review previous lesson and optimise operation of aircraft… Downwind checks, operating minimums (1/2 balance ball, +10/10 heading, Vref +5 kts -0 kts, +150 ft of set altitudes, main wheels first), maintain consistent tracking, pre-landing checklist, emergency engine cut off routine practice

Briefing discussion: Home-study on circuits and own notes, no formal briefing necessary as one was due to practice the circuit pattern and improve on skills.
Tasks: pre-flight checks, oil and fuel check, wheel chocks, start-up procedures and checks, radios, take-off, climbing, descent, turns, preflight briefing (re-aborted take-off procedure), touch’n’go x5, final landing.

Aircraft checked over, noted fuel ~60-65L of fuel by dipstick, plenty for the PA-28 that burns ~35L / hour. Noticed large areas of eroded tarmac beneath the wing, apparently due to previous fuel-leaks that weren’t adequately cleaned up (the fuel eats the tarmac?).

Initial start-up checks ran smoothly, but for the sake of time establish a routine to work with for start up. Waited ~5 mins on the tarmac prior to departure to allow commercial operations right of way – ~4 aircraft one SeaAir en-route to Lady Elliot, one caravan bound for Bundaberg, another that used runway 11 alternatively to get a marginally faster route out of the airspace… seemed bizarre but manageable as the tailwind was about 10 knots at the time. Then there was the local parachute group that took off in no time and we were clear to take off.
Rolling start from the mid-runway point. Took off tracking the middle of the runway.
– first circuit seemed rough, especially re-engaging the BUMFISH and having too much speed on the descent… must ensure to check the speed before engaging flaps. Approach was good nicely controlled but to the left. Landing was flat, to the left of the runway and beyond the numbers, all three wheels simultaneously touched without bleeding off the speed for a nosewheel.
– second and third circuits improved marginally with a better control of speed, height and centreline landings… approaches are less flat but when trying to pitch the nose up on engine-out one balloons the aircraft and still comes down relatively flat.
– fourth and fifth landings were much improved, finally getting the nose-up enough and the runway more centre-line… the last approach was still too fast and ballooned but still corrected, one needs to work on getting the speed low enough to stall just at the right moment.

A lesson learned here was that although the weather conditions seemed to be more of a challenge (especially for keeping the runway straight on approach) you have got to remain ‘ahead’ of the aircraft and make small but const and adjustments to maintain the accuracy of landing. Get used to lining the runway up and heading straight for the numbers – avoiding over and undershooting the runway.

Emergency procedure for an engine cut out were demonstrated and practiced after touch-and-go takeoff at ~500 ft (I can’t remember which circuit these were on). The nose-down, glide-speed, select field, flaps as necessary to reach the field routine has to be practiced to become automatic in the event of a sudden engine failure… This reminds me to watch the film Sully, apparently it’s a great movie full of insight into the split-second decision making necessary.

My radio calls need to improve with stringing things together in the right order
– E.g. “Hervey Bay traffic, KEP, on base, runway two-nine, Hervey Bay… {pause} touch and go”…
– It’s a simple glitch but probably annoying to listen to…
– ensure positional accuracy… “early, mid or late” in the leg … e.g. “late downwind”, or “turning into base leg”
– any clarification over the radio were addressed by instructor where necessary…

And again with the theme of split second decision making… After the 4th circuit a microlight that did not seem to be oriented to the circuit or other aircraft (such as us) came within hundreds of feet of us requiring an evasive manoeuvre (executed by instructor). This was a very dangerous situation that will have to be reported, considered from all angles, and discussed with the other aircraft operator. I take this as an early hard lesson in situational awareness highlighting just how important it is to look out the window, pay attention to the radio calls and make ample radio calls to let other people know where you are at.

I look forward to next week!
Radios: YHBA AWIS 134.9, general

Load, Balance and Performance notes.

Load Factor

Operating above the maximum weigh (wt) limitations compromise the structural integrity of the aircraft and impairs performances…

Load factor is the ratio of max load that the aircraft can sustain to the gross weight of the aircraft… measured in G’s (the acceleration of gravity)…


  • excessive G-forces can be experienced in steep turns or excessive maneuvers (turns, stalls, chandelles, lazy-eights) and turbulent air.
  • Load factor has two components; centrifugal force and gravity (see left image)
  • Maximum bank for most GA aircraft is 60 degrees… Load factor = 2…

Load factors and stalling speed increases stallload.png

– Using the above graphs, if an aircraft has a normal unaccelerated stall speed of 50 kts at a load factor of 3 G the new aircraft stall speed is ~75 kts (see yellow dashed line).

– The maximum speed by which an aircraft can be stalled safely is specified as the  Va; the designed maneuvering speed… exceeding this may lead to stalls and structural failure.
Weight and Balance

  • Excessive weight reduces flight performance… e.g;
    • Higher take off speeds and hence longer take-off run
    • Reduced rate and angle of climb
    • Lower max altitude
    • shorter range
    • reduced cruising speed
    • reduced maneuverability
    • higher stalling speed
    • higher approach and landing speed
    • longer landing roll
    • excessive weight on nose/tail wheel (difficult steering)
  • pilot is responsible for managing weight loading and management  .’, make certain that weights are up to date… e.g repairs may result in the removal or addition of engine parts or equipment results in changes to the center of gravity.
  • Lateral imbalance (e.g. fuel in one wing)
  • Longitudinal imbalance (e.g. with excess or unsecured baggage)
  • Prior to all flights determine the weight and balance checks, refer to loading conditions as set out by the aircraft manual… even in many modern aircraft it’s not possible to remain within weight limits if it is fully loaded with passengers (px), baggage and fuel.
  • The following terms are important for calculating weight and balance specifications of any aircraft;
    • CG limits; the specified forward and aft points for which the centre of gravity must be located in flight
    • CG range; the distance between forward and aft CG limits,


Nb. Standard operating data of aircraft includes the following information for safe and efficient operation; take-off, climb, range, endurance, descent, landing


The density of the air has a pronounced effect on aircraft and engine performance regardless of altitude. Air density is affected by temp, altitude and humidity… the density altitude can be imputed by using pressure altitude and flight level  temperature.

With decreased density of air;

  • power is reduced; because engine takes in less air
  • thrust is reduced; because propeller is less efficient
  • lift is reduced; because thin air exerts less force on the aerofoils…

Atmospheric temperature and pressure are the dominant factors that affect the performance of the aircraft..

Air pressure varies with temperature and altitude…
– standard reference at sea level is; 15 deg C, and a surface pressure of 1013 hPa
– all engine instruments are calibrated to the standard atmosphere… therefore corrections must be applied for real-conditions.
– pressure altitude is the height above the standard atmosphere… the altitude in the standard atmosphere corresponding to the sense of pressure.


For illustration purposes only – note pressures are in inches(!!) of Hg (inHg) not hPA,
1 inHg –> 68.9476


Flight 6. Circuits

Date: 1/10/2016
Purpose of Fight: Circuits I
Flight Time (hrs): 1.1
Aircraft: VH-KEP PA28

Airport: Hervey Bay Aerodrome
Instructor: E.Barrett , Briefing time (hr): 1
Time to take off: 9:29 Runway: 29
Time to land: 10:35 Runway: 29          Total Engine time: 1.1 Approx. Fuel ____
Wx: Wx at aerodrome: Cloud clear <1200, Wind Direction 220 N, Wind Strength 6kts , Dewpoint 7, Rainfall 0, Wind types -, Visibility >10km,  Humidity 44%, QNH 1014, Changes in Wx Conditions, BOM daily wx obs: Temps Min (°C) 7.2, Max (°C) __, Rain (mm) 0.2, Evap __, Sun __, [[Max daily wind gust: Dir __, Spd (km/h) __, Time (local) __]] [[9:00am record: Temp (°C) 22.2, RH (%) 34, Cloud -, Dir SW, Spd (km/h) 11, MSLP (hPA) 1014.9]], [[3:00pm record: Temp (°C) __, RH (%) __, Cloud __ , Dir __, Spd (km/h) __, MSLP (hPa) __]]
TAF YHBA 302124Z 0100/0112


FM010200 35010KT CAVOK


T 23 25 24 20 Q 1014 1012 1011 1013

METAR YHBA 010330Z AUTO 36011KT 9999 // NCD 25/07 Q1012

RMK RF00.0/000.0

Goals: Downwind checks, operating tolerances (1/2 balance ball??, +10/10 heading, Vref +5 kts -0 kts, +150 ft of set altitudes, main wheels first), maintain consistent tracking, pre-landing checklist

Briefing discussion: Basic circuit pattern (i.e. upwind, crosswind, downwind, base, final), radio calls associated and traffic control in uncontrolled airspace, theory of taking off into wind (decreases runway distance, increases angle of climb), discussed slipstream effect, propeller weight component, and effect of torque causing adverse yaw on take off especially at low speeds… effect of increased weight à increased runway length, atmospheric hot high and human conditions à reduced lift. Weather cocking-effect of crosswinds (common because very rarely wind will effectively be in the absolute direction of the runway). All circuit direction is to the LHS unless stated otherwise (usually is the case when a town or no-fly zone exits to the left airspace).
Always use the runway for a fixed reference point!
Stages of the circuit;

  • Upwind; maintain +/- 5 deg from the runway, no flaps in KEP, maintain 80 kt climb, climb to 300 ft & turn off the fuel pump, climb to 500 ft (clearance minimum) and enter 90 deg turn (R1) into x-wind.
  • Crosswind leg (X-wind); continue climbing to 1000 ft, throttle off to 2300-2400, straight and level 90 deg turn into downwind.
  • Downwind; adjust to be parallel to runway (keep runway just above wing), towards the end of the downwind leg (2/3 point) commence pre-landing checks (BUMFISH)
    B- Breaks working (i.e. no obvious leak)
    U- Undercarriage down
    M-Mixture – set to rich
    F- Fuel selector and pump ON
    I- instruments Temp and Pressure, Directional Gyro set to parallel with runway (aligned with compass in straight and level)
    S- Switces/Lights
    H- Hatches & Harnesses checkCalls for downwind and approach…
  • Base; extend flaps progressively 10, 20, 800 ft check adjust attitude and speed (70-75kts) Trim.
  • Final; Aimpoint (adjust and keep airstrip numbers in the aiming point), airspeed (fast/slow), aspect (high/low)

Landing; once over the airstrip, reduce power, use backpressure to keep nose from dipping; avoid ballooning or bounce… avoid wing-dip by monitoring wind direction and avoid over controlling the aircraft…

Touch&Go – retract flaps, full power, take off as usual.

Tasks: pre-flight checks, oil and fuel check, wheel chocks, start-up procedures and checks, radios, take-off, climbing, descent, turns, preflight briefing (re-aborted take-off procedure), touch’n’go x8, final landing.
New instructor, very insightful and experienced. Engaged and ready to discuss several aspects of the flight and coaching through each leg.

New engine in KEP, felt like the engine had more power than last time, and was much more responsive to throttle changes.

Initial take-off wheelspin can be difficult control the aircraft therefore aim to rotate at 60 kts as advised. Good application of rudder and aileron to control for adverse yaw. Good control of turns, height and speed using all visual indicators. Much more competent with the trim. 7-8 touch’n’go’s logged – initial 2 attempts on final were shaky and over controlled but improved with better use of throttle and rudder. Base-leg steadily improved by maintaining consistent tracking and consistent climbing during x-wind. Middle 5th and 6th base legs were high but corrected. Airspeed in base was adjusted by engaging flaps early, sometimes even at the end of downwind prior to base turn. Radio calls improving, remember to mention the aircraft and listen out for other aircraft before transmitting. Instructor handled radio calls on occasion when task saturated. Helicopter on base leg during one circuit, well managed and kept clear. CenterPoint landings were achieved most times however not without significant ballooning with late transition point or being too aggressive (or both). Learn to moderate the transition and engage with power out.
Final circuit and full-stop landing was good, wind was picking up towards the end of the circuit training so it became more difficult to stay on centreline. Also keep back-pressure once hind-wheels are secure to allow the nose-wheel to slowly come down). Next time aim to land closer to the numbers to save time exiting the runway and save a radio call to backtrack.

Remember; Power + Attitude = Performance…

Radios: YHBA AWIS 134.9, general

Additional Information Sheet about PA28 provided.

Piper PA-28-181 VH-KEP Information Sheet

Engine: Four cylinder horizontally opposed Lycoming O-36 A4A. Developing 180 BHP @ 2700 RPM
Fuel: Total 189 L, total usable 182 L, Flight Planning @ 36 l/hr, 100LL
Oil: Minimum 6 quarts, Maximum 8 quarts
Electrical: 12 V Battery – A 14 v DC system, 60 amp alternator
Power settings: Climb – Full Power, Cruise 2300-2450 RPM (115 kts TAS)
Limitations (KIAS):

  • Vne                 152
  • Vno                 124
  • Va                 112
  • Vy                 76
  • Vx                                 64
  • Vfe                 101
  • Normal Climb; 80
  • Vs (Clean) 59
  • Vs (40 deg Flap) 51
  • Best Glide 70
  • Rotate                 60
  • approach (40 deg flap) 65-70
  • Flapless approach 75-80
  • Short field (40 deg flap) 65
  • Crosswind component 17

Max Take-off weight:      1111 kg
Basic Weight:      Include Unusuable fuel and oil; 695.6 kg basic moment
Basic Weight Index Unit: 1533547 Kg-mm

Lesson 5. Stalling

Date: 24/9/2016
Flight purpose: Stalling
Flight time (hrs): 1.0
Aircraft: VH-TOI, Tobago


Airport: Hervey Bay Aerodrome
Instructor: BS , Briefing time (hr): 1
Time to take off: 12:15 Runway: 29 YHBA
Time to land: 13:15 Runway: 29 YHBA
Total Engine time: ___ Approx. Fuel ____
Wx: Wx at aerodrome: Cloud None, Temp: 21.8, Wind Direction 200, Wind Strength 5 , Dewpoint: 9, Rainfall 0, Wind types steady, Visibility >10km, Humidity 59%, QNH 1012, Changes in Wx Conditions, BOM daily Wx obs: Temps Min (°C) 9.3, Max (°C) 26.9, Rain (mm) 0, Evap -, Sun -, [[Max daily wind gust: Dir __, Spd (km/h) __, Time (local) __]] [[9:00am record: Temp (°C) 21.8, RH (%) 41, Cloud – , Dir SSW, Spd (km/h) 7, MSLP (hPA) 1013.4]], [[3:00pm record: Temp (°C) 24.5, RH (%) 50, Cloud – , Dir N, Spd (km/h) 19, MSLP (hPa) 1008.4]] YHBA 232107Z 2400/241231008KT CAVOK

FM240400 01012KT 9999 FEW040

FM241100 34006KT 9999 SCT015 SCT025


T 23 25 24 20 Q 1013 1010 1009 1009

METAR YHBA 240400Z AUTO 36011KT 9999 // NCD 24/12 Q1009

RMK RF00.0/000.0
Goals: Set up a stall and recover from a pre-stall, stall and wing-stall safely

Briefing discussion: A stall is essentially when the wing fails to generate lift because it exceeds the critical angle of attack… this is a theoretical concept of AoA… there is a critical angle at which lift is not longer generated… before reaching the critical angle lift is increased, after the critical angle lift decreases. At the ritical angle the transition point is reached on the wing and drag becomes significant (feeling a buffet)… Discussed symptoms of a stall (sloppy controls, shaking, high angle of attack, low airspeed, stall warning device)… set stalling speed is influenced by several factors… stalling speed is INCREASED if there is icing, increased drag from configuration, increased load factor (i.e. G-Force), and increases in weight… stalling speed is DECREAED if flap is engaged and with any increase in power. Load factor at 60 degrees of bank in a light aircraft is ~2 g… Vs(new) = Vs(old)xsqrt.(load.factor)… .’, if turning at 60 degrees and Vs(old) = 60 kts then Vs(new) = 72 kts. Prior to stall do a safety check (HASSELL) – Height (>3000), Airframe (flaps, landing gear), Safety & Security  (loose objects, harnesses, hatches) , Engine (oil pressure and temperature), Location (orientated to area, check for any built up areas) and Lookout do 2x 180 deg turns left and right to clear the area… this can be abbreviated to HELL after 1-2 checks (as the ASS components don’t change)… Routine; Carb-heat on, power off, hold attitude and altitude, experience stall speed and recover (in the Tobago also note the CSU needs to be controlled to account for pitch). Recovery; Reduce AoA (only slightly) – lower nose, power up to full throttle, use rudder to counter the wing drop (opposite to the wing), turn carb-heat off… note one wing can stall, don’t use aileron to correct, use the yaw pedals.
Tasks: pre-flight checks, oil administration, start-up procedures and checks, radios, take-off, climbing, descent, turns, managing the CSU, stalling.
Notes:  Stalls were demonstrated, and practiced. Symptoms of a stall were experienced – it was particularly interesting to note how long it takes to get the aircraft to stall, and how bad the plane feels when one is about to stall. Initial attempts to stall were very poor, loosing 600-700 ft in one go. This was practiced to improve to within 100 ft. Be careful not to pull too far back on the elevator to gain altitude before entering the stall when demonstrating ability… the purpose is to remain disciplined, if being asked to stall at 3,800 ft, stall at 3,800 ft. Coordinating power and elevator control at the same time is important. Don’t let the nose drop down below the horizon too far otherwise one risks loosing a lot of altitude in a dive and risks a G-loaded stall on pulling out too quick. With extra time  60 degree turns were demonstrated. Radios to communicate with another pilot on approach to airfield, very difficult seeing low planes around the bay (even against water)…
Radios: YHBA AWIS 134.9, general

Lesson 4. Medium Level Turns

Date: 24/9/2016
Flight Purpose: Medium level turns
Flight time (hrs): 0.8
Aircraft VH-TOI, Tobago

Airport: Hervey Bay Aerodrome
Instructor: BS, Briefing time (hr): 1
Time to take off: 10:00 Runway: 29  YHBA
Time to land: 10:50 Runway:  29  YHBA
Total Engine time: ___ Approx. Fuel ____
Wx: Wx at aerodrome: Cloud None, Temp: 21.8, Wind Direction 200, Wind Strength 5 , Dewpoint: 9, Rainfall 0, Wind types steady, Visibility >10km, Humidity 59%, QNH 1012, Changes in Wx Conditions, BOM daily Wx obs: Temps Min (°C) 9.3, Max (°C) 26.9, Rain (mm) 0, Evap -, Sun -, [[Max daily wind gust: Dir __, Spd (km/h) __, Time (local) __]] [[9:00am record: Temp (°C) 21.8, RH (%) 41, Cloud – , Dir SSW, Spd (km/h) 7, MSLP (hPA) 1013.4]], [[3:00pm record: Temp (°C) 24.5, RH (%) 50, Cloud – , Dir N, Spd (km/h) 19, MSLP (hPa) 1008.4]]

TAF YHBA 232107Z 2400/2412


FM240400 01012KT 9999 FEW040

FM241100 34006KT 9999 SCT015 SCT025


T 23 25 24 20 Q 1013 1010 1009 1009

METAR YHBA 240400Z AUTO 36011KT 9999 // NCD 24/12 Q1009

RMK RF00.0/000.0
Goals: Master turning by visual control of planes, medium level turns at level flight and climbing and descending turns at 15 degrees.

Briefing discussion – discussed the force components of medium level turns. The impact of adverse aileron effect (i.e. wing tipping over the plane in a turn) and adverse yaw (from induced wing drag)… Correction with active aileron and re; control surfaces, discussed differential and frise ailerons to counteract the adverse yaw. Understand the difference between slips and skids. Understand overbank and underbank tendency while turning. Adopt a standard operating procedure around turning; prior – attitude, lookout, performance then bank, balance, backpressure. NB Rate 1 is the 180 deg turn in 1 min… andlge of bank ranges between 15-20 deg but is indicated on the turn coordinator (important for IFR). Aso discussed the use of the Constant Speed Unit (CSU) – for controlling mixture, pitch and throttle.
Tasks: pre-flight checks, oil administration, start-up procedures and checks, radios, take-off, climbing, descent, turns, managing the CSU, approach to run-way (handed over control for landing in crosswind)
Notes:  Familiarised oneself with aircraft, cockpit and control surfaces. Fuel rate of consumption is measured inside the cockpit with avionics. Nice new NAVMAN (garmin) installed, with navaid radios, stall alarm is a bell, indicators and some controls are placed in more intuitive places on the dashboard… for instance all the warning lights are directly above the yoke. Pedals were heavy to respond to and stick during flight, felt different to begin with – due to ~9-10 week absence of flying there was some tendency to over-control the aircraft on take-off with elevator… forgot to correct with aileron and rudder on take off… the Tobago had noticeably more power than the PA-28, rotate speed came within a few seconds of pulling full throttle. The plane has a tendency to back-fire so be careful with moving the throttle back and fourth with smother movements. Trim is very responsive and could be set to forget. Automatic flaps were really useful, the aircraft also has take-off flaps as a requirement. Upon landing it was noted that the aircraft was heavy on the nose and more difficult to steer, therefore it is advised to pull back on the yoke while rolling down the runway on landing.
Critical speeds in TOI:  Climbing speed– 80 kt, Glide speed 86 kt
Radios: YHBA AWIS 134.9, general