Lesson 10. Circuits et. Emergency Landings

Date: 29/10/2016
Flight Time: 1.0
Aircraft: VH-KEP
: Hervey Bay Aerodrome
Instructor: MM , Briefing time (hr): 0
Time to take off: 08:30 Runway: 11
Time to land: 9:30  Runway: 11          Total Engine time: 1.0 Approx. Fuel 36 L
Wx at aerodrome: Temp 26 Cloud Clear below 1200 ft, Wind Direction 060 deg, Wind Strength 8 kts , Dewpoint 14, Rainfall nil, Wind types __, Visibility 10 km,  Humidity 46%, QNH 1019, Changes in Wx Conditions, BOM daily wx obs: Temps Min (°C) 14.9, Max (°C) __, Rain (mm) 0, Evap __, Sun __, [[Max daily wind gust: Dir __, Spd (km/h) __, Time (local) __]] [[9:00am record: Temp (°C) 25.5, RH (%) 52, Cloud __, Dir ENE, Spd (km/h) 13, MSLP (hPA) 1019.0]], [[3:00pm record: Temp (°C) __, RH (%) __, Cloud __ , Dir __, Spd (km/h) __, MSLP (hPa) __]]


TAF YHBA 282132Z 2900/2912

04012KT 9999 FEW040

FM290900 07007KT 9999 SCT030


T 26 27 25 22 Q 1018 1017 1016 1018

METAR YHBA 290230Z AUTO 04007KT 360V090 9999 // NCD 26/14 Q1017

RMK RF00.0/000.0



Goals: Review previous lesson and optimise operation of aircraft… Downwind checks, operating minimums (1/2 balance ball, +10/10 heading, Vref +5 kts -0 kts, +150 ft of set altitudes, main wheels first), maintain consistent tracking, pre-landing checklist, emergency engine cut off routine practice ++ Exams: Apply revision of all aviation theory to date + Radio license and operation checks.
Briefing discussion: Home-study on circuits, own notes – exam preparation.  No formal briefing necessary as one was due to practice the circuit pattern and improve on skills.

Tasks: pre-flight checks, oil and fuel check, wheel chocks, start-up procedures and checks, radios, take-off, climbing, descent, turns, preflight briefing (re-aborted take-off procedure), touch’n’go x1, x2 missed approach & go-arounds + 1 demonstrated emergency engine cut out + 3 practice engine cut-off landings final landing.

Notes: 110 L of fuel on take-off. Runway 11 makes for an interesting take-off given the dip in the runway at mid-point. This was overall a challenging lesson learning and applying new skills to the basic circuit pattern. Initial circuit was terrible however and had a very steep approach on landing, but recovered nicely.
The missed approaches were executed at 200 ft of the ground on approach. Basic procedure involved; full power, attitude adjustment, full mixture, fuel pump on and progressive raising of flaps (careful attention to airspeed, climb rate and attitude) while climbing out. Make radio-call to signify go-around as required. This was fluid by the second attempt.
By far the most interesting part of the lesson was when I was shown how to land with an engine-out on mid-downwind. Key points learned; make an immediate turn towards the runway with holding nose attitude setting the glide speed. Aim initially at a point 2/3rds down the runway closest to where you are approaching. Maintain glide-speed and put flaps down only when you feel you could make the field.
On initial practice it was evident I did not make enough of an effort to get to glide-speed early on… instructor aborted by applying thrust as we were entering the aerodrome with a shallow and oblique approach.
Second attempt made with a right-handed circuit (to avoid local skydiver group). Made an easy glide back to base and entered a third circuit to the left shortly after. Due to the novelty of working on the right-circuit, instructor took over making clear radio calls.
Final engine-failure practice was for a full-stop that was actually quite smooth and overall quite well done.

Radio chatter was quite interesting with the RFDS landing within the hour, several direct approaches from 8-9 nm, a sky-diving troupe (coordinated carefully in terms of timing) and a congested pattern to manage on the second missed approach practice. I kept ahead of the traffic calls and answered questions directly in communication with other aircraft. Again I was able to record this but my SDR radio doesn’t capture other radios that well for some reason (probably because of the poor tuning characteristics)…


The Exam for Radio calls and Pre-flight solo were more challenging than I anticipated… but I still did great (93% for both tests) some of what featured on the test (from memory)

Readability codes (RST):

  1. Unreadable
  2. Barely readable, occasional words distinguishable
  3. Readable with considerable difficulty
  4. Readable with practically no difficulty
  5. Perfectly readable

Mayday call code… (NAANIPPA)

  • MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY (yes, three times)
  • Name of station addressed
  • Aircraft call sign
  • Aircraft type
  • Nature of emergency
  • Intentions of pilot
  • Position (or last known position): flight level/Altitude/Height; heading
  • Pilot Qualifications (No instrument qualifications: IMCrating etc.)
  • Any other useful information e.g. persons on board etc.NB: The same things can be mentioned for PAN PAN PAN calls… Remember the ultimate difference between a Mayday and a Pan is that one is a distress call the other is an urgent situation.
    Distress: The aircraft is threatened by serious and/or imminent danger and requires immediate assistance
    Urgency: A condition concerning the safety of an aircraft or other vehicle, or of some person on board or in sight, but not requiring immediate attention

Engine fire protocol:
– set glide attitude, pick field and flaps as necessary
– try to cease fire by leaning mixture, fuel pump off, throttle off, carb heat on
– radio calls
– use fire hydrant as necessary
– land safely/brace for impact

Minimum time from last alcoholic drink to flight is 8 hrs.

Apparently smoking is allowed while flying – as crazy as that sounds there is no total ban on smoking… it’s just not allowed when the pilot is attempting to land/take off, or while refuelling.
Transponder ‘squark code’ settings:
– 1200 for VFR, 1202 for gliders, 3000 for controlled airspace, 7500 for hijack ’7, 5 taken alive’, 7600 communications failure ’7, 6 radio fix’, 7700 Emergency ‘7,7 going to heaven’

NDB beacons are transmitted on low frequency and middle frequency ranges…

Ground waves vs Air waves – state the differences;

Propagation distances <5,000 ft ~60 nm, ~10,000 ft ~90 nm
ERSA contains information about airfield specific radio failure procedures
Specific aircraft knowledge; speeds; VFE (101), FNE (152), VNO (112), Va (124), Vx (64), Vy (76), Vs (w (51)/wo flaps (59)), normal climb (80), glide (70) short field (65), approach w/flaps (65-70), w/oflaps (75-80).
Fuel capacity (188 L) type of fuel (100LL), type of oil ? (6-8 quarts), total output (180 BHP at 2300 RPM), total weight  w/fuel and oil 686, max capacity 1111 kg, 4 cylander carburettor engine.
Radios: YHBA AWIS 134.9 MHz, general CTAF 126.55 MHz