Lesson 9 Circuits IV.

Date: 22/10/2016
Purpose: Circuits IV
Aircraft: VH-KEP
Flight Time: 0.9

Airport: Hervey Bay Aerodrome
Instructor: EB , Briefing time (hr): 0
Time to take off: 12:00 Runway: 29
Time to land: 12:55 Runway: 29          Total Engine time: 0.9 Approx. Fuel ____
Wx: Wx at aerodrome: Temp 26 Cloud clear below 1200 ft, Wind Direction 350, Wind Strength 10 kts, Dewpoint 15, Rainfall 0, Wind types __, Visibility >10 km,  Humidity 50%, QNH 1016 Hpa, Changes in Wx Conditions, BOM daily wx obs: Temps Min (°C) 13.7, Max (°C) __, Rain (mm) 0, Evap __, Sun __, [[Max daily wind gust: Dir __, Spd (km/h) __, Time (local) __]] [[9:00am record: Temp (°C) 24.9, RH (%) 53, Cloud 1, Dir N, Spd (km/h) 17, MSLP (hPA) 1017.2]], [[3:00pm record: Temp (°C) 25.3, RH (%) 58, Cloud __ , Dir N, Spd (km/h) 22, MSLP (hPa) 1012.7]]

http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/dwo/IDCJDW4056.latest.shtml

TAF YHBA 212128Z 2200/2212

36014KT 9999 FEW035

FM220900 33006KT 9999 SCT040

RMK

T 26 27 25 23 Q 1016 1015 1013 1014

METAR YHBA 212200Z AUTO 01009KT 9999 // SCT031 24/14 Q1018

RMK RF00.0/000.0

 

wx_22_10_2016

wx_22_10_2016_2

Goals: Review previous lesson and optimise operation of aircraft… Downwind checks, operating minimums (1/2 balance ball, +10/10 heading, Vref +5 kts -0 kts, +150 ft of set altitudes, main wheels first), maintain consistent tracking, pre-landing checklist, emergency engine cut off routine practice

Briefing discussion: Home-study on circuits and own notes, no formal briefing necessary as one was due to practice the circuit pattern and improve on skills.

Tasks: pre-flight checks, oil and fuel check, wheel chocks, start-up procedures and checks, radios, take-off, climbing, descent, turns, preflight briefing (re-aborted take-off procedure), touch’n’go x5 + final landing.

Notes:
90 L of fuel on take-off. Skills generally improving with the whole work routine and approach becoming second nature. Ballooning minimised with attention to airspeed – gusting is problematic for staying on centreline. Another emergency engine cut-off practiced at 500 ft, noticeably little choice to go for off runway 29 – instructor remarked “might as well just try and return to field”.
Protocol for emergency landing – dip nose for glide speed, select field, flap as necessary, + carb heat on + fuel pump on + mixture rich.

After third circuit, shown how to do a flapless approach and then practiced 2-3x. It was explained that the descent is supposed to be shallow and the nose is pitched higher than usual – clean stalling airspeed +8-9 kts above typical stalling speed with full 40 deg flaps (51 kts in KEP). Noticeably more buffeting from thermals at lower altitudes.

For something different I decided to record my radio calls to see how I may be being interpreted… I used an old software defined radio usb stick (NooElec R820T2 SDR & DVB-T NESDR Mini 2) and HDSDR to tune into the CTAF frequency (126.55 MHz) and record the transmissions. Overall I was surprised how well it worked considering I left the computer as-is at ground base in a building that was basically a faraday cage for radio signals. In anycase, I have provided a recording of calls from VH-KEP below.

14705756_10154753676710815_6307658712113149160_n

https://clyp.it/lktt5nei/widget

Next week exam topics: Radio calls and Pre-flight solo questions… some of the potential topics include;
– Radio readability levels
– PanPan calls vs Mayday calls
– Water and fuel density
– Mixture concentration
– Icing phemnomenon (induced, impact, fuel, throttle)
– VMC… Visual meterological conditions
– Limitations on flying – 500 ft over terrain, 1000 ft over built up areas…
 – Transponder ‘squark code’ settings: 1200 for VFR, 1202 for gliders, 3000 for controlled airspace, 7500 for hijack ’7, 5 taken alive’, 7600 communications failure ’7, 6 radio fix’, 7700 Emergency ‘7,7 going to heaven’.

Radios: YHBA AWIS 134.9 MHz, general CTAF 126.55 MHz

 

Lesson 8. Circuits III

Date: 15/10/2016
Purpose of Flight: Circuit training
Aircraft: VH-KEP
Flight time: 1.0

Airport: Hervey Bay Aerodrome
Instructor: MM , Briefing time (hr): 0
Time to take off: 8:15 Runway: 11
Time to land: 9:15  Runway: 11          Total Engine time: 1.0 Approx. Fuel ____
Wx: Wx at aerodrome (Approx time of AWIS call 8:00): Cloud scattered 5500, Wind Direction 120 N, Wind Strength 9 kts , Temp 21oC, Dewpoint 11, Rainfall last 10 mins nil, Wind types -, Visibility >10km,  Humidity 55%, QNH 1021,

Changes in Wx Conditions, BOM daily wx obs: Temps Min (°C) 16.3, Max (°C) __, Rain (mm) 2, Evap __, Sun __, [[Max daily wind gust: Dir __, Spd (km/h) __, Time (local) __]] [[9:00am record: Temp (°C) 18.3, RH (%) 88, Cloud 7, Dir S, Spd (km/h) 13, MSLP (hPA) 1019.9]], [[3:00pm record: Temp (°C) __, RH (%) __, Cloud __ , Dir __, Spd (km/h) __, MSLP (hPa) __]] http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/dwo/IDCJDW4056.latest.shtml
Wind 120 N 9 kts, QNH 1021 HpA, Temp 21, Cloud scattered at 5500, visibility >10k dewpoint 11, humidity 55%, rainfall nil

 

TAF YHBA 141621Z 1418/1506

15012KT 9999 SCT040

FM142300 12018KT 9999 SCT045

RMK

T 17 19 23 23 Q 1020 1021 1021 1020

METAR YHBA 142100Z AUTO 13009KT 9999 // SCT047 BKN055 21/11 Q1021

RMK RF00.0/000.4

wx_15_10_2016

wx_15_10_2016_2

Goals: Review previous lesson and optimise operation of aircraft… Downwind checks, operating minimums (1/2 balance ball, +10/10 heading, Vref +5 kts -0 kts, +150 ft of set altitudes, main wheels first), maintain consistent tracking, pre-landing checklist, emergency engine cut off routine practice

Briefing discussion: Home-study on circuits and own notes, no formal briefing necessary as one was due to practice the circuit pattern and improve on skills.

Tasks: pre-flight checks, oil and fuel check, wheel chocks, start-up procedures and checks, radios, take-off, climbing, descent, turns, preflight briefing (re-aborted take-off procedure), touch’n’go x5 + final landing.

Notes: No damage to aircraft, 105-110 L of fuel onboard with 55-60 L in right wing, 5-6 circuits today, radio calls have improved. Strong headwind off the runway above 100ft (trees protecting the airstrip), noticeably forceful 15 kts pushing off course. Made adjustments by turning 5-10 degrees into the wind on crosswind. Initial landing was flat but otherwise the approach went well. Improvements were made on base and final for dealing with the wind and turbulence. Now 3 hrs into circuits having found a rhythm of doing things it becomes much more natural to keep ahead of the plane, make appropriate radio calls and especially listen out for other aircraft. Perceptual awareness is improving also. One noticed that the airfield has 3 windsocks at different parts of the runway. Wind fluctuated at etiher end of the runway and it was possible to start anticipating a sudden change in wind direction by keeping an eye on the windsock.
Spacing of other aircraft was managed.
One emergency engine-out practiced at 500 ft on 4th circuit – nose down, anticipated field, flap as required and power on to recover.
Instructor believes my skills are on track to anticipate a solo within 3-4 more circuit training flights. Typically it takes 6-7 circuit training flights before the instructor believes it is appropriate to let the student go solo… if anything major comes up, or pilot requires more time practicing a particular aspect that time is extended. As this completes my 3rd hr of circuits I can expect that we’ll start to practice more emergency situations and failures e.g. flapless approach and landing, engine out landing etc.

Look forward to next week!

Radios: YHBA AWIS 134.9, general

Lesson 7. Flight Circuits II

Airport: Hervey Bay Aerodrome
Instructor: BS , Briefing time (hr): 0
Time to take off: 8:15 Runway: 29
Time to land: 9:15 Runway: 29          Total Engine time: 1.0 Approx. Fuel ____
Wx: Wx at aerodrome (Approx time of AWIS call 8:00): Cloud clear <1200, Wind Direction variable 340 – 350 N, Wind Strength 13 kts , Temp 22.4oC, Dewpoint -, Rainfall last 10 mins nil, Wind types -, Visibility >10km,  Humidity 60%, QNH 1012, Changes in Wx Conditions, BOM daily wx obs: Temps Min (°C) 13.2, Max (°C) __, Rain (mm) 0, Evap __, Sun __, [[Max daily wind gust: Dir __, Spd (km/h) __, Time (local) __]] [[9:00am record: Temp (°C) 24.1, RH (%) 57, Cloud -, Dir N, Spd (km/h) 17, MSLP (hPA) 1022.4]], [[3:00pm record: Temp (°C) __, RH (%) __, Cloud __ , Dir __, Spd (km/h) __, MSLP (hPa) __]] http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/dwo/IDCJDW4056.latest.shtml
barometric

TAF YHBA 072111Z 0800/0812

36008KT CAVOK

FM080100 36012KT CAVOK

RMK

T 25 26 25 22 Q 1021 1019 1017 1018

METAR YHBA 080400Z AUTO 36012KT 9999 // NCD 25/17 Q1018

RMK RF00.0/000.0

 

Goals: Review previous lesson and optimise operation of aircraft… Downwind checks, operating minimums (1/2 balance ball, +10/10 heading, Vref +5 kts -0 kts, +150 ft of set altitudes, main wheels first), maintain consistent tracking, pre-landing checklist, emergency engine cut off routine practice

Briefing discussion: Home-study on circuits and own notes, no formal briefing necessary as one was due to practice the circuit pattern and improve on skills.
Tasks: pre-flight checks, oil and fuel check, wheel chocks, start-up procedures and checks, radios, take-off, climbing, descent, turns, preflight briefing (re-aborted take-off procedure), touch’n’go x5, final landing.
Notes:

Aircraft checked over, noted fuel ~60-65L of fuel by dipstick, plenty for the PA-28 that burns ~35L / hour. Noticed large areas of eroded tarmac beneath the wing, apparently due to previous fuel-leaks that weren’t adequately cleaned up (the fuel eats the tarmac?).

Initial start-up checks ran smoothly, but for the sake of time establish a routine to work with for start up. Waited ~5 mins on the tarmac prior to departure to allow commercial operations right of way – ~4 aircraft one SeaAir en-route to Lady Elliot, one caravan bound for Bundaberg, another that used runway 11 alternatively to get a marginally faster route out of the airspace… seemed bizarre but manageable as the tailwind was about 10 knots at the time. Then there was the local parachute group that took off in no time and we were clear to take off.
Rolling start from the mid-runway point. Took off tracking the middle of the runway.
– first circuit seemed rough, especially re-engaging the BUMFISH and having too much speed on the descent… must ensure to check the speed before engaging flaps. Approach was good nicely controlled but to the left. Landing was flat, to the left of the runway and beyond the numbers, all three wheels simultaneously touched without bleeding off the speed for a nosewheel.
– second and third circuits improved marginally with a better control of speed, height and centreline landings… approaches are less flat but when trying to pitch the nose up on engine-out one balloons the aircraft and still comes down relatively flat.
– fourth and fifth landings were much improved, finally getting the nose-up enough and the runway more centre-line… the last approach was still too fast and ballooned but still corrected, one needs to work on getting the speed low enough to stall just at the right moment.

A lesson learned here was that although the weather conditions seemed to be more of a challenge (especially for keeping the runway straight on approach) you have got to remain ‘ahead’ of the aircraft and make small but const and adjustments to maintain the accuracy of landing. Get used to lining the runway up and heading straight for the numbers – avoiding over and undershooting the runway.

Emergency procedure for an engine cut out were demonstrated and practiced after touch-and-go takeoff at ~500 ft (I can’t remember which circuit these were on). The nose-down, glide-speed, select field, flaps as necessary to reach the field routine has to be practiced to become automatic in the event of a sudden engine failure… This reminds me to watch the film Sully, apparently it’s a great movie full of insight into the split-second decision making necessary.

My radio calls need to improve with stringing things together in the right order
– E.g. “Hervey Bay traffic, KEP, on base, runway two-nine, Hervey Bay… {pause} touch and go”…
– It’s a simple glitch but probably annoying to listen to…
– ensure positional accuracy… “early, mid or late” in the leg … e.g. “late downwind”, or “turning into base leg”
– any clarification over the radio were addressed by instructor where necessary…

And again with the theme of split second decision making… After the 4th circuit a microlight that did not seem to be oriented to the circuit or other aircraft (such as us) came within hundreds of feet of us requiring an evasive manoeuvre (executed by instructor). This was a very dangerous situation that will have to be reported, considered from all angles, and discussed with the other aircraft operator. I take this as an early hard lesson in situational awareness highlighting just how important it is to look out the window, pay attention to the radio calls and make ample radio calls to let other people know where you are at.

I look forward to next week!
Radios: YHBA AWIS 134.9, general

Flight 6. Circuits

Date: 1/10/2016
Purpose of Fight: Circuits I
Flight Time (hrs): 1.1
Aircraft: VH-KEP PA28

Airport: Hervey Bay Aerodrome
Instructor: E.Barrett , Briefing time (hr): 1
Time to take off: 9:29 Runway: 29
Time to land: 10:35 Runway: 29          Total Engine time: 1.1 Approx. Fuel ____
Wx: Wx at aerodrome: Cloud clear <1200, Wind Direction 220 N, Wind Strength 6kts , Dewpoint 7, Rainfall 0, Wind types -, Visibility >10km,  Humidity 44%, QNH 1014, Changes in Wx Conditions, BOM daily wx obs: Temps Min (°C) 7.2, Max (°C) __, Rain (mm) 0.2, Evap __, Sun __, [[Max daily wind gust: Dir __, Spd (km/h) __, Time (local) __]] [[9:00am record: Temp (°C) 22.2, RH (%) 34, Cloud -, Dir SW, Spd (km/h) 11, MSLP (hPA) 1014.9]], [[3:00pm record: Temp (°C) __, RH (%) __, Cloud __ , Dir __, Spd (km/h) __, MSLP (hPa) __]] http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/dwo/IDCJDW4056.latest.shtml
TAF YHBA 302124Z 0100/0112

23005KT CAVOK

FM010200 35010KT CAVOK

RMK

T 23 25 24 20 Q 1014 1012 1011 1013

METAR YHBA 010330Z AUTO 36011KT 9999 // NCD 25/07 Q1012

RMK RF00.0/000.0

Goals: Downwind checks, operating tolerances (1/2 balance ball??, +10/10 heading, Vref +5 kts -0 kts, +150 ft of set altitudes, main wheels first), maintain consistent tracking, pre-landing checklist

Briefing discussion: Basic circuit pattern (i.e. upwind, crosswind, downwind, base, final), radio calls associated and traffic control in uncontrolled airspace, theory of taking off into wind (decreases runway distance, increases angle of climb), discussed slipstream effect, propeller weight component, and effect of torque causing adverse yaw on take off especially at low speeds… effect of increased weight à increased runway length, atmospheric hot high and human conditions à reduced lift. Weather cocking-effect of crosswinds (common because very rarely wind will effectively be in the absolute direction of the runway). All circuit direction is to the LHS unless stated otherwise (usually is the case when a town or no-fly zone exits to the left airspace).
Always use the runway for a fixed reference point!
Stages of the circuit;

  • Upwind; maintain +/- 5 deg from the runway, no flaps in KEP, maintain 80 kt climb, climb to 300 ft & turn off the fuel pump, climb to 500 ft (clearance minimum) and enter 90 deg turn (R1) into x-wind.
  • Crosswind leg (X-wind); continue climbing to 1000 ft, throttle off to 2300-2400, straight and level 90 deg turn into downwind.
  • Downwind; adjust to be parallel to runway (keep runway just above wing), towards the end of the downwind leg (2/3 point) commence pre-landing checks (BUMFISH)
    B- Breaks working (i.e. no obvious leak)
    U- Undercarriage down
    M-Mixture – set to rich
    F- Fuel selector and pump ON
    I- instruments Temp and Pressure, Directional Gyro set to parallel with runway (aligned with compass in straight and level)
    S- Switces/Lights
    H- Hatches & Harnesses checkCalls for downwind and approach…
  • Base; extend flaps progressively 10, 20, 800 ft check adjust attitude and speed (70-75kts) Trim.
  • Final; Aimpoint (adjust and keep airstrip numbers in the aiming point), airspeed (fast/slow), aspect (high/low)

Landing; once over the airstrip, reduce power, use backpressure to keep nose from dipping; avoid ballooning or bounce… avoid wing-dip by monitoring wind direction and avoid over controlling the aircraft…

Touch&Go – retract flaps, full power, take off as usual.

Tasks: pre-flight checks, oil and fuel check, wheel chocks, start-up procedures and checks, radios, take-off, climbing, descent, turns, preflight briefing (re-aborted take-off procedure), touch’n’go x8, final landing.
Notes:
New instructor, very insightful and experienced. Engaged and ready to discuss several aspects of the flight and coaching through each leg.

New engine in KEP, felt like the engine had more power than last time, and was much more responsive to throttle changes.

Initial take-off wheelspin can be difficult control the aircraft therefore aim to rotate at 60 kts as advised. Good application of rudder and aileron to control for adverse yaw. Good control of turns, height and speed using all visual indicators. Much more competent with the trim. 7-8 touch’n’go’s logged – initial 2 attempts on final were shaky and over controlled but improved with better use of throttle and rudder. Base-leg steadily improved by maintaining consistent tracking and consistent climbing during x-wind. Middle 5th and 6th base legs were high but corrected. Airspeed in base was adjusted by engaging flaps early, sometimes even at the end of downwind prior to base turn. Radio calls improving, remember to mention the aircraft and listen out for other aircraft before transmitting. Instructor handled radio calls on occasion when task saturated. Helicopter on base leg during one circuit, well managed and kept clear. CenterPoint landings were achieved most times however not without significant ballooning with late transition point or being too aggressive (or both). Learn to moderate the transition and engage with power out.
Final circuit and full-stop landing was good, wind was picking up towards the end of the circuit training so it became more difficult to stay on centreline. Also keep back-pressure once hind-wheels are secure to allow the nose-wheel to slowly come down). Next time aim to land closer to the numbers to save time exiting the runway and save a radio call to backtrack.

Remember; Power + Attitude = Performance…

Radios: YHBA AWIS 134.9, general

Additional Information Sheet about PA28 provided.

Piper PA-28-181 VH-KEP Information Sheet

Engine: Four cylinder horizontally opposed Lycoming O-36 A4A. Developing 180 BHP @ 2700 RPM
Fuel: Total 189 L, total usable 182 L, Flight Planning @ 36 l/hr, 100LL
Oil: Minimum 6 quarts, Maximum 8 quarts
Electrical: 12 V Battery – A 14 v DC system, 60 amp alternator
Power settings: Climb – Full Power, Cruise 2300-2450 RPM (115 kts TAS)
Limitations (KIAS):

  • Vne                 152
  • Vno                 124
  • Va                 112
  • Vy                 76
  • Vx                                 64
  • Vfe                 101
  • Normal Climb; 80
  • Vs (Clean) 59
  • Vs (40 deg Flap) 51
  • Best Glide 70
  • Rotate                 60
  • approach (40 deg flap) 65-70
  • Flapless approach 75-80
  • Short field (40 deg flap) 65
  • Crosswind component 17

Max Take-off weight:      1111 kg
Basic Weight:      Include Unusuable fuel and oil; 695.6 kg basic moment
Basic Weight Index Unit: 1533547 Kg-mm