The Q&A at IAC 2016 Elon Musk’s Presentation for Interplanetary Colonization – Really!?

Elon Musk’s presentation at the International Astronomical Convention 2016 could be considered a “we chose to go to the moon” moment for the private space industry… I got up at 4:30 AEST to watch the live stream and was interested to hear the big announcement. To Elon’s credit the presentation was deliberately impactful, reminiscent of an Apple press conference; generating much hype, media and social capital in the online community (r/spacex for example…)… but the questions that followed were frankly disappointing.

As extracted from the subreddit comments, these were some choice examples of how people responded when given the microphone.
– “Yahh ive been to burning man and there was totally shit everywhere man! Ya know? Totally! Is mars going to be a literal shitstorm”
– “Will you let me give you my fan fiction?”
– “Can I kiss you?”
– “Will you send Michael Cera to space for a web series?”
– “Will you look at my bus?”

(

Though I cannot give any informed technical opinion about the plans (it just all looks fricken awesome), I thought from a PR perspective it didn’t bode well for Musk.

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Adjustment Disorder vs Major Depressive Disorder

Med students are often asked to distinguish between Major Depressive Disorder (296.xx) and Adjustment Disorder with depressed mood (309.xx)… Both are characteristically different groups of conditions that although are categorically distinct, sometimes present with similar symptoms…

Adjustment disorder is a major depressive episode that occurs in response to a psychosocial stressor (e.g. losing a family member or loved one, major disaster, loss of job etc). Depression is distinguished fro adjustment disorder by the fact that the full criteria for MDD are not met in adjustment disorder…

As stated in the DSM V, MDD can be diagnosed based on criteria A-E.
Criteria A. Key Signs and Symptoms.
– >5 or more of the following during a 2 week period and represent a change from previous functioning; 1. Depressed mood, 2. Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all or almost all activities most f the day, nearly every day, 3. Significant weight loss (not through intentional dieting/exercise), 4. Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day, 5. Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others, not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down). 6. Fatigue or loss of energy, 7. Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt, 8. Diminished ability to think or concentrate, being indecisive, 9. Recurrent thought of death (not just fear of dying), recurring suicidal ideation without specific plan, or suicide attempt…
– AT LEAST ONE of the symptoms should be either 1. Depressed mood OR 2. Loss of interest in pleasure.

Criteria B; Significance
– the symptoms cause considerable distress or impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of functioning.

Criteria C; No attributes
– the episode cannot be attributed to substance use or any other medical condition.

Criteria D. No better explaination
– The occurrence of DD is not better explained by any other psychological condition (e.g. schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, schizopreniform, delusional disorder)

Criteria E; No previous manic episode..
– this is similar to criteria D as it may indicate bipolar disorder…

The above are better memorised with the mnemonic SADAFACES (Sleep Disturbance, Anhedonia, Depressed mood, Appetite loss, Fatigue, Aggitation, Concentration loss, Esteem loss, Suicidality)

It is important to note that MDD has many other differential diagnoses including…

– Manic episodes with irritable mood or mixed episodes
– Mood disorder due to another medical condition
– Substance/medication induced depression
– Bipolar disorder (I/II)
– Dysthymia
– ADHD (via manifestations of distractibility and low frustration tolerance)
– Plain ‘Sadness’ – the human experience

But the distinction should be somewhat more obvious..

An adjustment disorder with depressed mood may also present with clinically significant (i.e. marked distress, significant impairment) elements of low mood, tearfullness and feelings of hopelessness – but are frequently precipitated by an identifiabe stressor, within 3 months of the onset. This can be considered if a bereavement process is not seen to represent normal social/cultural practices or if symptoms persist an additional 6 months after that stressor has been terminated.

The key differential diagnoses for adjustment disorder include
– MDD
– PTSD
– Personality disorder
– Psychological factors from other medical conditions
– Normative stress reactions

ASD -a spectrum of disorders

Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is defined in the DSM V in section 299.00(F84.0)

The DSM stipulates that ASD is defined by criteria A-E…

Criteria A; Impairment of social interaction
– Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, as manifested by the following, currently or by history (examples are illustrative, not exhaustive)… 1. Deficits in social emotional reciprocal, ranging for example, from abnormal social approach and failure of normal back-and-fourth conversation; to reduced sharing of interests, emotions or affect; to failure to initiate or respond to social interactions. 2. Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction, ranging for example, from poorly integrated verbal and nonverbal communication; to abnormalities in eye contact and body language or deficits in understanding and use of gestures; to a total lack of facial expressions and nonverbal communication. 3. Deficits in developing, maintaining and understanding relationships, ranging for example, from difficulties adjusting behavior to suit various social contexts; to difficulties in sharing imaginative play or in making friends; to absence of interest in peers.
– Specify current severity; severity is based on social communication impairments and restricted repetitive patterns of behavior…

Criteria B; Restricted repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests or activities
Restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following, currently or by history (examples are illustrative, not exhaustive)… 1. Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects or speech (e.g. simple motor stereotypes, lining up toys or flipping objects, ecolalia, idiosyncratic phrases). 2. Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines or ritualized patterns of verbal or non-verbal behaviour e.g. extreme distress at small changes, difficulties with transitions, rigid thinking patterns, greeting rituals, need to take same rout or eat same food every day). 3. Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus (e.g. strong attachment to or preoccupation with unusual objects, excessively circumscribed or perseverative interests). 4. Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment e.g. apparent indifference to pain/temperature, adverse response to specific sounds or textures, excessive smelling or touching of objects, visual fascination with lights or movement).

C. Symptoms must be present in the early develipmental period

D. Symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in social, occupationl, or other important areas of current functioning.

E. These disturbances are not better explained by intellectual dissability.

Nb. Individuals with well-established DSM IV diagnosis of autistic disorder, aspergers disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified should be given the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Individuals who have marked effects in social communication, but whose symptoms do not otherwise meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder, should be evaluated for social (pragmatic) communication disorder.

 

 

 

 

Lesson 5. Stalling

Date: 24/9/2016
Flight purpose: Stalling
Flight time (hrs): 1.0
Aircraft: VH-TOI, Tobago

14369888_10154659048505815_3012668412787912222_n

Airport: Hervey Bay Aerodrome
Instructor: BS , Briefing time (hr): 1
Time to take off: 12:15 Runway: 29 YHBA
Time to land: 13:15 Runway: 29 YHBA
Total Engine time: ___ Approx. Fuel ____
Wx: Wx at aerodrome: Cloud None, Temp: 21.8, Wind Direction 200, Wind Strength 5 , Dewpoint: 9, Rainfall 0, Wind types steady, Visibility >10km, Humidity 59%, QNH 1012, Changes in Wx Conditions, BOM daily Wx obs: Temps Min (°C) 9.3, Max (°C) 26.9, Rain (mm) 0, Evap -, Sun -, [[Max daily wind gust: Dir __, Spd (km/h) __, Time (local) __]] [[9:00am record: Temp (°C) 21.8, RH (%) 41, Cloud – , Dir SSW, Spd (km/h) 7, MSLP (hPA) 1013.4]], [[3:00pm record: Temp (°C) 24.5, RH (%) 50, Cloud – , Dir N, Spd (km/h) 19, MSLP (hPa) 1008.4]] http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/dwo/IDCJDW4056.latest.shtmlTAF YHBA 232107Z 2400/241231008KT CAVOK

FM240400 01012KT 9999 FEW040

FM241100 34006KT 9999 SCT015 SCT025

RMK

T 23 25 24 20 Q 1013 1010 1009 1009

METAR YHBA 240400Z AUTO 36011KT 9999 // NCD 24/12 Q1009

RMK RF00.0/000.0
Goals: Set up a stall and recover from a pre-stall, stall and wing-stall safely

Briefing discussion: A stall is essentially when the wing fails to generate lift because it exceeds the critical angle of attack… this is a theoretical concept of AoA… there is a critical angle at which lift is not longer generated… before reaching the critical angle lift is increased, after the critical angle lift decreases. At the ritical angle the transition point is reached on the wing and drag becomes significant (feeling a buffet)… Discussed symptoms of a stall (sloppy controls, shaking, high angle of attack, low airspeed, stall warning device)… set stalling speed is influenced by several factors… stalling speed is INCREASED if there is icing, increased drag from configuration, increased load factor (i.e. G-Force), and increases in weight… stalling speed is DECREAED if flap is engaged and with any increase in power. Load factor at 60 degrees of bank in a light aircraft is ~2 g… Vs(new) = Vs(old)xsqrt.(load.factor)… .’, if turning at 60 degrees and Vs(old) = 60 kts then Vs(new) = 72 kts. Prior to stall do a safety check (HASSELL) – Height (>3000), Airframe (flaps, landing gear), Safety & Security  (loose objects, harnesses, hatches) , Engine (oil pressure and temperature), Location (orientated to area, check for any built up areas) and Lookout do 2x 180 deg turns left and right to clear the area… this can be abbreviated to HELL after 1-2 checks (as the ASS components don’t change)… Routine; Carb-heat on, power off, hold attitude and altitude, experience stall speed and recover (in the Tobago also note the CSU needs to be controlled to account for pitch). Recovery; Reduce AoA (only slightly) – lower nose, power up to full throttle, use rudder to counter the wing drop (opposite to the wing), turn carb-heat off… note one wing can stall, don’t use aileron to correct, use the yaw pedals.
Tasks: pre-flight checks, oil administration, start-up procedures and checks, radios, take-off, climbing, descent, turns, managing the CSU, stalling.
Notes:  Stalls were demonstrated, and practiced. Symptoms of a stall were experienced – it was particularly interesting to note how long it takes to get the aircraft to stall, and how bad the plane feels when one is about to stall. Initial attempts to stall were very poor, loosing 600-700 ft in one go. This was practiced to improve to within 100 ft. Be careful not to pull too far back on the elevator to gain altitude before entering the stall when demonstrating ability… the purpose is to remain disciplined, if being asked to stall at 3,800 ft, stall at 3,800 ft. Coordinating power and elevator control at the same time is important. Don’t let the nose drop down below the horizon too far otherwise one risks loosing a lot of altitude in a dive and risks a G-loaded stall on pulling out too quick. With extra time  60 degree turns were demonstrated. Radios to communicate with another pilot on approach to airfield, very difficult seeing low planes around the bay (even against water)…
Radios: YHBA AWIS 134.9, general

Lesson 4. Medium Level Turns

Date: 24/9/2016
Flight Purpose: Medium level turns
Flight time (hrs): 0.8
Aircraft VH-TOI, Tobago

Airport: Hervey Bay Aerodrome
Instructor: BS, Briefing time (hr): 1
Time to take off: 10:00 Runway: 29  YHBA
Time to land: 10:50 Runway:  29  YHBA
Total Engine time: ___ Approx. Fuel ____
Wx: Wx at aerodrome: Cloud None, Temp: 21.8, Wind Direction 200, Wind Strength 5 , Dewpoint: 9, Rainfall 0, Wind types steady, Visibility >10km, Humidity 59%, QNH 1012, Changes in Wx Conditions, BOM daily Wx obs: Temps Min (°C) 9.3, Max (°C) 26.9, Rain (mm) 0, Evap -, Sun -, [[Max daily wind gust: Dir __, Spd (km/h) __, Time (local) __]] [[9:00am record: Temp (°C) 21.8, RH (%) 41, Cloud – , Dir SSW, Spd (km/h) 7, MSLP (hPA) 1013.4]], [[3:00pm record: Temp (°C) 24.5, RH (%) 50, Cloud – , Dir N, Spd (km/h) 19, MSLP (hPa) 1008.4]]  http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/dwo/IDCJDW4056.latest.shtml

TAF YHBA 232107Z 2400/2412

31008KT CAVOK

FM240400 01012KT 9999 FEW040

FM241100 34006KT 9999 SCT015 SCT025

RMK

T 23 25 24 20 Q 1013 1010 1009 1009

METAR YHBA 240400Z AUTO 36011KT 9999 // NCD 24/12 Q1009

RMK RF00.0/000.0
Goals: Master turning by visual control of planes, medium level turns at level flight and climbing and descending turns at 15 degrees.

Briefing discussion – discussed the force components of medium level turns. The impact of adverse aileron effect (i.e. wing tipping over the plane in a turn) and adverse yaw (from induced wing drag)… Correction with active aileron and re; control surfaces, discussed differential and frise ailerons to counteract the adverse yaw. Understand the difference between slips and skids. Understand overbank and underbank tendency while turning. Adopt a standard operating procedure around turning; prior – attitude, lookout, performance then bank, balance, backpressure. NB Rate 1 is the 180 deg turn in 1 min… andlge of bank ranges between 15-20 deg but is indicated on the turn coordinator (important for IFR). Aso discussed the use of the Constant Speed Unit (CSU) – for controlling mixture, pitch and throttle.
Tasks: pre-flight checks, oil administration, start-up procedures and checks, radios, take-off, climbing, descent, turns, managing the CSU, approach to run-way (handed over control for landing in crosswind)
Notes:  Familiarised oneself with aircraft, cockpit and control surfaces. Fuel rate of consumption is measured inside the cockpit with avionics. Nice new NAVMAN (garmin) installed, with navaid radios, stall alarm is a bell, indicators and some controls are placed in more intuitive places on the dashboard… for instance all the warning lights are directly above the yoke. Pedals were heavy to respond to and stick during flight, felt different to begin with – due to ~9-10 week absence of flying there was some tendency to over-control the aircraft on take-off with elevator… forgot to correct with aileron and rudder on take off… the Tobago had noticeably more power than the PA-28, rotate speed came within a few seconds of pulling full throttle. The plane has a tendency to back-fire so be careful with moving the throttle back and fourth with smother movements. Trim is very responsive and could be set to forget. Automatic flaps were really useful, the aircraft also has take-off flaps as a requirement. Upon landing it was noted that the aircraft was heavy on the nose and more difficult to steer, therefore it is advised to pull back on the yoke while rolling down the runway on landing.
Critical speeds in TOI:  Climbing speed– 80 kt, Glide speed 86 kt
Radios: YHBA AWIS 134.9, general

Lesson 3. Climbing and Descending

Date: 25/6/2016
Flight Purpose: Climbing and Descending
Flight time (Hrs): 0.8
Aircraft: VH-KEP, PA-28
Airport
: Hervey Bay Aerodrome
Instructor: BS, Briefing time (hr): 0.8
Time to take off: ____ Runway: 29 YHBA
Time to land: ___ Runway: 29  YHBA
Total Engine time: ___ Approx. Fuel ____
Wx: Cloud, Wind Direction, Wind Strength, Wind types, Visibility, QNH, Changes in Wx Conditions, Precipitation, BOM daily wx obs: Temps Min (°C) 5.8, Max (°C), 20.7, Rain (mm) 0, Evap – Sun – [[Max daily wind gust: Dir SSW, Spd (km/h) 20, Time (local) 08:02 ]] [[9:00am record: Temp  (°C) 11.8, RH (%) 59, Cloud – , Dir SSW, Spd (km/h)11 , MSLP (hPA) 1020.9]], [[3:00pm record: Temp  (°C) 19.9, RH (%) 50, Cloud – , Dir E, Spd (km/h) 11, MSLP (hPa) 1016.6]]
Goals:

Briefing discussion – the basic circuit, radio calls,
Tasks:
Notes: ensure to look outside before performing any manoeuvre,
Radios: YHBA AWIS 134.9, general

Lesson 2 Flying Straight and Levelf

Date: 11/6/2016
Flight/Purpose: Flying Straight and Level
Flight Time (hr): 1
Aircraft: VH-KEP, PA-28

Airport: Hervey Bay Aerodrome
Instructor: MM, Briefing time (hr): 0.8
Time to take off: ____Runway: 29 YHBA
Time to land: ___ Runway: 29   YHBA
Total Engine time: ___ Approx. Fuel ____
Wx: Cloud, Wind Direction, Wind Strength, Wind types, Visibility, QNH, Changes in Wx Conditions, Precipitation, (none reported) – BOM daily wx obs: Temps Min (°C) 12.7, Max (°C), 24.4, Rain (mm) 0, Evap – Sun – [[Max daily wind gust: Dir SW, Spd (km/h) 20, Time (local) 9:17am]] [[9:00am record: Temp  (°C) 17.6, RH (%) 60, Cloud, – Dir SW, Spd (km/h) 15, MSLP (hPA) 1023.3]], [[3:00pm record: Temp (°C) 23.8, RH (%) 50, Cloud – , Dir ESE, Spd (km/h) 11, MSLP (hPa) 1019.7]]

Goals:

Briefing discussion
Tasks:
Notes:
As for homework a basic aircraft checklist and radio calls were provided
Radios: YHBA AWIS 134.9, general